Development and fecundity of Trissolcus japonicus on fertilized and unfertilized eggs of the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys.
Halyomorpha halys, the brown marmorated stink bug, is a serious agricultural and horticultural pest native to East Asia, which became an invasive pest in northern temperate parts of other regions in the mid-1990s. Trissolcus japonicus is a dominant egg parasitoid of H. halys in its native range. In this paper, we investigated mating, oviposition and fecundity of both virgin and mated females of H. halys. Virgin H. halys females produced unfertilized eggs, while mated females produced fertilized eggs, but mating states of adult females did not affect the number of eggs produced. We further compared the development and fecundity of T. japonicus on fertilized or unfertilized eggs of various ages. Fertilized eggs were tested continuously for up to 5 days (time to hatch), while unfertilized eggs were tested for up to 11 days (time to egg collapse). The fertilization status of the host egg had a significant effect on the development, emergence success, and sex ratio of T. japonicus progeny. A small increase in development time was observed for T. japonicus in fertilized eggs, fewer T. japonicus emerged from fertilized eggs than unfertilized eggs, and the proportion of female progeny was lower on fertilized eggs. The age of host eggs also significantly affected the development rate and fecundity of T. japonicus, with unfertilized eggs becoming more favorable than fertilized eggs as egg age increased. In summary, unfertilized H. halys eggs were better suited for T. japonicus development and fecundity, indicating their potential use in T. japonicus mass rearing.