Characterization of porcine sapelovirus isolated from Japanese swine with PLC/PRF/5 cells.
Porcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of neurological disorders, fertility disorders and dermal lesions of swine. In this study, we isolated two PSV strains, Jpsv477 and Jpsv1315, from swine faecal specimens using a PLC/PRF/5 cell culture system. The PSV infection of PLC/PRF/5 cells induced a cytopathic effect (CPE). Two types of virus particles with identical diameter (∼35 nm) but different densities (1.300 and 1.285 g/cm3) were observed in the cell culture supernatants. Analysis of the entire genome sequence of Jpsv477 and Jpsv1315 revealed that both strains possess 7,558 nucleotides and the poly (A) tail and have a typical PSV genome organization consisting of a 5′ terminal untranslated region (5′UTR), a large open reading frame (ORF), and a 3′ terminal untranslated region (3′UTR). The ORF encodes a single polyprotein that is subsequently processed into a leader protein (L), four structural proteins (VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4) and seven functional proteins (2A, 2B, 2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D). The structural proteins VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 have molecular masses of ∼35, ∼26, ∼25 and ∼6 kDa. The N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis of VP1, VP2, VP3 and VP4 confirmed that the cleavage sites between VP4 and VP2, VP2 and VP3, and VP3 and VP1 are K/A, Q/G and Q/G, respectively. We further confirmed that HepG2/C3A, Vero E6 and primary green monkey kidney cells (PGMKC) were also susceptible to PSV infection. The stability assay demonstrated that PSV was inactivated by heating at 60°C for 10 min or 65°C for 5 min. The virus also lost infectivity by incubation with 62.5 ppm of NaClO for 30 min.