Porcine respiratory disease complex after the introduction of H1N1/2009 influenza virus in Brazil.
From 2009 to 2015, 74 lungs from suckling (6.8%), nursing (70.3%), fattening (20.3%) pigs and pregnant sows (2.7%) with respiratory signs from pig farms in Southern Brazil were submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for necropsy and/or histologic examination and screening for respiratory agents by RT-qPCR, immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation (VI) and subtyping for influenza A virus (IAV), IHC and nested PCR for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mhyo), PCR for porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), RT-qPCR for porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and bacterial culture. All lung samples were positive for IAV using RT-qPCR. Seventy-two lungs had histologic lesions associated with acute to subacute IAV infection characterized by necrotizing bronchiolitis/bronchitis or bronchointerstitial pneumonia with lymphocytic peribronchiolitis and bronchiolar/bronchial hyperplasia, respectively. Forty-nine lungs (66.2%) were positive by IHC for IAV nucleoprotein. The H1N1/2009 was the most common subtype and the only IAV detected in 58.1% of lungs, followed by H1N2 (9.5%) and H3N2 (6.8%). Coinfection of IAV and Mhyo was seen in 23 (31%) cases. Although 14.9% of the lungs were positive for PCV2 using PCR, no suggestive lesions of PCV2 disease were observed. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) was not detected, consistent with the PRRS-free status of Brazil. Secondary bacterial infections (8/38) were associated with suppurative bronchopneumonia and/or pleuritis. Primary IAV infection with Mhyo coinfection was the most common agents found in porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) in pigs in Southern Brazil.