Indigenous hosts of economically important fruit fly species (Diptera: Tephritidae) in South Africa.
Fruit flies are among the most economically important fruit pests worldwide. The larvae are phytophagous and constitute a major production constraint in the horticultural industry. Various indigenous fruits were sampled from 2010 to 2015 in Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa to determine the presence of fruit fly species. The Oriental fruity fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), the Marula fruit fly, Ceratitis cosyra (Walker) and the Natal fruit fly, Ceratitis rosa sensu lato Karsch were reared from the indigenous fruits. B. dorsalis was reared from one marula, Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. (Anacardiaceae) sample. All three Ceratitis species were reared from the Mobola plum, Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. (Chrysobalanaceae) and Kei-apple, Dovyalis caffra (Hook.f. & Harv.) Sim (Salicaceae). Wild plum, Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. (Anacardiaceae), African mangosteen, Garcinia livingstonei T.Anderson (Clusiaceae), Cape ash, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm. (Meliaceae), waterberry, Syzygium cordatum Hochst. ex Krauss (Myrtaceae) and stemfruit, Englerophytum magalismontanum (Sond.) T.D.Penn. (Sapotaceae) were hosts to both C. capitata and C. rosa s.l. C. capitata was also reared from num-num, Carissa bispinosa (L.) Desf. ex Brenan (Apocynaceae), simple-spined num-num, Carissa spinarum L. (Apocynaceae), brown ivory, Berchemia discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl. (Rhamnaceae), wild coffee, Coffea racemosa Lour. (Rubiaceae) and common red milkwood, Mimusops zeyheri Sond. (Sapotaceae). C. cosyra was also found in the fruit of S. birrea and the wild mango, Cordyla africana Lour. (Leguminosae). C. rosa s.l. was also reared from Natal plum, Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.) A.DC. (Apocynaceae), waterpear, Syzygium guineense (Willd.) DC. (Myrtaceae), Natal dovyalis, Dovyalis longispina (Harv.) Warb. (Salicaceae) and wild apricot, Dovyalis zeyheri (Sond.) Warb. (Salicaceae). No fruit flies were reared from Ficus spp. (Moraceae). Various indigenous hosts could serve as a reservoir for infesting cultivated crops.