Conservation outputs and recommendations for Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest, Singapore.
The current paper acts as a summary to the "Nee Soon Swamp Forest biodiversity and hydrology baseline studies project", including results published previously and the results from papers of the current volume. Overall, flora and fauna surveys indicate healthy and diverse plant, fish and aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest. There are some concerns over terrestrial and aquatic alien invasive species, loss of big emergent trees, small population sizes and viability of various native species, and the uncertain outcomes of changes in water quality and quantity. The findings inform management that Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest is especially vulnerable to changes in hydrology and there is much dependency on precipitation for its water budget. Projected climate change effects on precipitation and statistical analyses of biotic responses to hydrology clearly define drought as a major, perhaps the foremost, source of vulnerability to the ecosystem functioning of Nee Soon freshwater swamp forest. Potential management solutions are suggested to address five issues of concern for the forest: hydrological integrity, erosion and sedimentation, ecological integrity, the impact of the spillway, and impacts of construction and development.