Molecular evolution and invasion pattern of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 in Europe: mutation rate, and selection pressure differ between genome domains.
Understanding virus evolution is a fundamental goal of virology, evolutionary biology, and disease epidemiology. We provide a detailed analysis of evolution and origin of Cryphonectria hypovirus 1 (CHV1) populations in Europe, based on the complete genome sequence of all European subtypes. Phylogenetic analyses divided European strains into two closely related clades. Strains of the subtype I belong to the first, while strains of the subtypes F1, D and E belong to the second clade suggesting that the subtypes F1, D and E are more closely related than previously thought. Strains of the subtype F2 appeared to be recombinant; subtypes F1/D/E contributed a larger fraction of sequence while subtype I contributed a smaller fraction. The p29 was the most variable domain, while the replication-associated large ORF B protein was the most conserved domain within the CHV1. Low sequence similarity, predominant negative selection and frequent recombination characterise the evolution of CHV1.