The natural enemies of privets (Ligustrum: Oleaceae): a literature review, with particular reference to biological control.
The arthropod and fungal natural enemies of privets (Ligustrum spp., Oleaceae) are listed, based on the data from taxonomic and nomenclatural websites, printed and electronic literature searches, including CAB Abstracts. Initially, the lists were compiled to identify and assess those natural enemies occurring on Ligustrum robustum in its indigenous Asian range as part of a classical biological control programme for the island of La Reunion, where this privet species has become a problematic invasive alien weed. However, because other species of Ligustrum are also posing invasive problems in other parts of the world, wherever they have been introduced, the lists have been expanded to cover all species in the genus. These records of natural enemies of Ligustrum, together with the distribution data, should enable those involved with the issues of invasive privets to assess the potential of classical biological control as an option for their management. As a further aid, an overview of those natural enemies considered to have the highest potential as classical biological control agents for L. robustum is included.