Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract Full Text

Results of a two year survey (2015-2016) of quarantine whitefly species from genus Aleurocanthus Quaintance & Baker 1914 on citrus in Croatia.


Citrus production in Croatia is of great importance in agriculture and national economy. The most important production areas are located in central and southern Dalmatia, with mandarin production in the Neretva river valley being of greatest importance. Whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in particular non-European invasive species have become increasingly important pests of citrus in the Mediterranean basin, including Croatia. The greatest phytosanitary threat to the production of citrus in Croatia and other Mediterranean countries from the insect family Aleyrodidae represent quarantine species Aleurocanthus spiniferus Quaintance, 1903 and Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, 1915. High risk of introduction of these quarantine species was one of the main reasons for their inclusion on the list of priorities for survey during 2015 and 2016, which was implemented as a part of the national surveillance programme of citrus harmful organisms listed in Annex IAI and IIAI of Directive 2000/29/EC. The main objective of the two year survey in citrus plantations was to determine the possible presence and current status of quarantine whitefly species from genus Aleurocanthus in four coastal counties (Zadar, Šibenik-Knin, Split-Dalmatia and Dubrovnik-Neretva), particularly after the first finding and successful eradication of species A. spiniferus in Croatia in 2012. Presence of A. spiniferus and A. woglumi was investigated in citrus orchards, gardens and public areas on a total of 50 localities on the coast and on the islands. Visual inspections with sampling of leaves infested with whitefly larvae were combined with trapping of adults using yellow sticky traps. The whiteflies collected in leaves' samples were identified to the species level on the basis of morphological characters of puparium and pupal case, using classical identification method according to the relevant morphological keys. Aleurocanthus species were not recorded in Croatia in 2015 and 2016. The most common species in samples of collected leaves was Dialeurodes citri Ashmead, 1885, a very important pest on all Citrus species throughout the citrus growing area in Croatia. Another very commonly identified whitefly species was Aleurothrixus floccosus Maskell, 1896. Japanese bayberry whitefly Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana, 1927) was found for the first time in Croatia in 2015 in lemon plantation, in Lumbarda on the island of Korčula.