Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Genetic diversity and virulence of wheat and barley strains of Xanthomonas translucens from the Upper Midwestern United States.

Abstract

Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) of wheat and barley, caused by Xanthomonas translucens pv. undulosa and X. translucens pv. translucens, has been of growing concern in small grains production in the Upper Midwestern United States. To optimize disease resistance breeding, a greater awareness is needed of the pathovars and genetic diversity within the pathogens causing BLS in the region. Multilocus sequencing typing (MLST) and analysis (MLSA) of four common housekeeping genes (rpoD, dnaK, fyuA, and gyrB) was used to evaluate the genetic diversity of 82 strains of X. translucens isolated between 2006 and 2013 from wheat, barley, rye, and intermediate wheatgrass. In addition, in planta disease assays were conducted on 75 strains to measure relative virulence in wheat and barley. All strains were determined by MLSA to be related to X. translucens pv. undulosa and X. translucens pv. translucens. Clustering of strains based on Bayesian, network, and minimum spanning trees correlated with relative virulence levels in inoculated wheat and barley. Thus, phylogeny based on rpoD, dnaK, fyuA, and gyrB correlated with host of isolation and was an effective means for predicting virulence of strains belonging to X. translucens pv. translucens and X. translucens pv. undulosa.