Effects of sublabeled rates of dazomet and metam-sodium applied under low-permeability films on Calonectria microsclerotia survival.
Infested soil is the primary inoculum source for Calonectria spp. for initiating disease in ornamental and forestry crops. The effects of dazomet and metam-sodium on survival of microsclerotia of 28 isolates belonging to 19 Calonectria spp. were evaluated in this study under nursery conditions. Two experiments with exotic Calonectria spp. in plastic containers in a greenhouse and three trials with endemic species in field plots were performed during different seasons. The containers and plots were artificially infested with Calonectria microsclerotia differentiated on carnation leaf tissues. Basamid (dazomet) was applied at 100, 160, 200, 400, and 500 kg/ha, while Divapan (metam-sodium) was applied at 250, 350, 400, 700, and 1,000 liters/ha in both the containers and plots. The fumigants were applied under virtually and totally impermeable films. Fungal survival was evaluated after 21 days using leaf tissues collected from treated soil and plated on potato dextrose agar, and the ability of microsclerotia to cause infection was tested on red clover. The survival of Calonectria inocula and microsclerotia decreased with increasing fumigant rates. In the greenhouse trials, where Basamid was applied at 200, 400, and 500 kg/ha and Divapan at 400, 700, and 1,000 liters/ha, no viable microsclerotia were recovered for 14 exotic Calonectria spp., whereas viable inocula of Calonectria hongkongensis, C. naviculata, and C. sulawesiensis were retrieved from the fumigated plots. Low rates of Basamid (100 and 160 kg/ha) and Divapan (250 and 350 liters/ha) were less effective at reducing Calonectria viability and, for these treatments, the rate of microsclerotia survival was highly variable among the different isolates and species. Furthermore, totally impermeable film significantly enhanced fumigant performance. Relative to endemic Calonectria spp., all of the treatments killed microsclerotia of C. polizzii and C. pauciramosa independent from fumigant, rate, and film. This research demonstrated the possibility of reducing the application rates by up to 160 kg/ha for Basamid and 400 liters/ha for Divapan under low-permeability films (virtually impermeable film or totally impermeable film) for eradicating or reducing the primary inoculum of Calonectria spp. in soil.