Effects of open dumping of MSW on metal contamination of soil, plants, and earthworms in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India.
Influence of open dumping of municipal solid wastes (MSW) on metal contamination of soil, plants, and earthworms in Ranchi, Jharkhand, India, was studied over 6-month period. Dumpsite in the study area exists in two sections, old section where waste dumping has stopped and new section where wastes are currently disposed. Soil around dumpsite had high concentration of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn than that at control site. Geoaccumulation index indicated uncontaminated to moderate level of soil contamination at old dumpsite and soil at new dumpsite was found to be uncontaminated. Parthenium hysterophorus, Lantana camara, and Calotropis procera were the main plants found in patchy distribution around dumpsite. Plants exhibited almost similar levels of metal concentration in roots and shoots. P. hysterophorus and L. camara showed high bioaccumulation capacity and low translocation capacity. C. procera showed moderate bioaccumulation capacity and high translocation capacity as the concentration of metals was higher in the shoot. P. hysterophorus and L. camara due to higher bioaccumulation capacity and lower translocation capacity appear to be suitable for phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil. Earthworms present at the dumpsite showed high concentration of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn with bioconcentration factor >1. Results highlights that soil contamination due to metals is occurring at the dumpsite which is also leading to transfer of metals to plants and earthworms which can pose serious risk to environment and human health. The plants identified can be used for decontamination of metals from the dumpsite.