Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Biology, agricultural impact, and management of Cyperus rotundus L.: the world's most tenacious weed.

Abstract

Purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.), a troublesome weed, is economically damaging weed, which is widely naturalized in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This weed has been reported to cause 20-90% yield losses in various agronomic and horticultural crops across the world. Perennial nature, genetic diversity, ability to tolerate adverse climatic conditions, high rate of reproduction, ease-of-dispersion, strong competitive abilities, and allelopathic potential assist this weed to thrive in a range of agro-climatic regions. Routine cultural approaches, including crop rotation, crop choice, and mechanical cultivation, are ineffective in achieving season-long management of C. rotundus. Pre-emergent and post-emergent herbicides, as well as myco-herbicides, can control its growth but fail to limit the regenerative capacity and tuber viability of C. rotundus in the long term. Integration of herbicides with tillage operations during summer fallows would be a reliable option to desiccate the tubers and rhizomes of C. rotundus. Furthermore, preventive measures as well as complete destruction of nascent foci would be helpful in preventing future spread of this weed. This review will help researchers and scientists in understanding the reproductive biology and future threats of C. rotundus, leading towards the development of improved control methodologies. The information presented in this article will also enable researchers and growers to address the prevailing gaps in the eco-biology of this weed for the long-term control of C. rotundus in economically important field crops.