A review of the integration of classical biological control with other techniques to manage invasive weeds in natural areas and rangelands.
Integrating classical biological control with other management techniques such as herbicide, fire, mechanical control, grazing, or plant competition, can be the most effective way to manage invasive weeds in natural areas and rangelands. Biological control agents can be protected from potential negative impacts of these weed control methods through untreated refugia or by applying the treatment at a time when the agent is not vulnerable. A literature review of experiments that integrated biological control with other management strategies from 1987 to 2017 yielded 39 terrestrial and 16 aquatic studies. The tactics most frequently integrated with biological control were herbicide applications and plant competition. Despite numerous examples of successful programs and calls for more widespread integration of biological control with other weed management strategies, there was no increase in the number of studies reported annually over time. Additional studies investigating the ecological and economic benefits of integrated weed management are needed.