Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with arabica coffee and geographical distribution in the neotropical region.
Coffee is one of the most important Brazilian agricultural commodities exported, and Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States are the main coffee producers. Scale insects are important coffee pests, and 73 species of Cerococcidae (3), Coccidae (18), Diaspididae (6), Eriococcidae (1), Ortheziidae (3), Pseudococcidae (21), Putoidae (2) and Rhizoecidae (19) have been associated with roots, branches, leaves, flowers and fruits of Arabica coffee in the Neotropics. Eight species were found associated with Arabica coffee in Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo States in this study, and Coccidae was the most frequent family. Coccus alpinus, Cc. celatus, Cc. lizeri, Cc. viridis, and Saissetia coffeae (Coccidae) were found in both states; Alecanochiton marquesi, Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Diaspididae), and Dysmicoccus texensis (Pseudococcidae) were only found in Minas Gerais. Alecanochiton marquesi and P. trilobitiformis are first reported in Minas Gerais, and Cc. alpinus in Espírito Santo, on Arabica coffee. All scale insect species were associated with coffee leaves and branches, except D. texensis, associated with coffee roots. Fourty seven scale insect species have been found occurring in Brazilian Arabica coffee, and in Espírito Santo (28) and Minas Gerais (23). Widespread and geographical distribution of each species found are discussed.