Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract Full Text

Pathogens from the genus Phytophthora associated with fruit and forest species in Bulgaria.


The intensification of international trade significantly expands the risk for introduction of invasive Phytophthora pathogens in the natural ecosystems. Survey on occurance of the genus in different types of ecosystems in Bulgaria was carried out during 2011 and 2012. In total 254 plant objects from 61 locations were sampled, including five forest nurseries, seven orchards, one greenhouse, two experimental fields and two garden centers. 61 plant taxons were sampled. In the current study six Phytophthora spp. were found, namely P. plurivora, P. cryptogea, P. cambivora, P. citricola, P. megasperma and P. rosacaerum. A map of Bulgaria with the found species and location places is offered. P. plurivora was obtained from declining old oak (Q. robur L.) trees growing in protected area 'Tulovska koria', from a white alder tree (A. incana Moench.) in Velingrad, and from common alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) and white willow (Salix alba L.) trees, growing in riparian ecosystems along the rivers Erma and Struma, respectively. P. cryptogea was isolated from a sweet chestnut (C. sativa Mill.) specimen growing in 'Belasitsa' Nature Park, from a dead spruce (P. abies (L.) H. Karst) tree in a private property in Bankya, and from asymptomatic spruce (P. abies (L.) H. Karst) tree in 'Vitosha' Nature Park. P. cambivora was obtained from spruce (P. abies (L.) H. Karst) tree growing in 'Vitosha' Nature Park and from a sweet chestnut (C. sativa Mill.) seedling in the nursery of State Forestry 'Berkovitsa'. P. rosacearum was isolated from a prune (P. domestica L.) seedling growing in a fruit orchard in Tulovo town. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record about the availability of the last species in Bulgaria and Europe. P. citricola was obtained from raspberry plantation in Gotce Delchev town. P. megasperma was isolated from black alder (A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn.) tree growing along the river Treklyanska. Though being a pilot study by nature, this is the first complex attempt at exploring the distribution of Phytophthora spp. in Bulgaria.