Development of a low-cost and effective trapping device for apple maggot fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) monitoring and control in Mexican commercial hawthorn groves.
Few efforts have been made in Mexico to monitor Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in commercial hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) crops. Therefore, the main objectives of this study were to evaluate infestation levels of R. pomonella in feral and commercial Mexican hawthorn and to assess the efficacy of different trap-lure combinations to monitor the pest. Wild hawthorn was more infested than commercially grown hawthorn at the sample site. No differences among four commercial baits (Biolure, ammonium carbonate, CeraTrap, and Captor+borax) were detected when used in combination with a yellow sticky gel (SG) adherent trap under field conditions. However, liquid lures elicited a slightly higher, although not statistically different, capture. Cage experiments in the laboratory revealed that flies tended to land more often on the upper and middle than lower-bottom part of polyethylene (PET) bottle traps with color circles. Among red, orange, green, and yellow circles attached to a bottle trap, only yellow circles improved fly captures compared with a colorless trap. A PET bottle trap with a red circle over a yellow background captured more flies than a similar trap with yellow circles. An SG adherent yellow panel trap baited with ammonium carbonate was superior to the improved PET bottle trap (red over a yellow background) baited with different liquid proteins, but a higher proportion of females and no differences in fly detection were measured in PET traps baited with protein lures. These trials open the door for future research into development of a conventional nonadherent trap to monitor or control R. pomonella.