Evaluation of ecological tolerance and requirements of exotic conifers in the urban landscape of Bursa.
Plants are alive landscape elements showing lively, dynamic, decorative, aesthetic and functional features and they are actively used both in urban and rural landscape applications. Effective compositions can be created by using a combination of native and exotic (foreign originated) plants in urban landscaping instead of being content just with native species. In this study, exotic conifers that appear in the urban landscape of Bursa, which has a rich diversity due to its location and ecologic situation, is determined in detail with their potentials and their evaluation in terms of their ecological tolerance (frost, drought, and salt tolerance) and ecological requests (soil properties, light requirements). As a result of the evaluation, 17 genera belonging to 5 families, 46 species and 72 cultivars have been found to be used in the urban landscape of Bursa. Many of the exotic conifers were determined to be resistant to urban conditions and had high environmental tolerance.