Fish and fisheries in the Ganga river: current assessment of the fish community, threats and restoration.
Fisheries are a major source of food, leisure and income for humanity and fishers community globally. The Ganga river fauna and flora is threatened by anthropogenic activities and resulting water pollution, accumulation of heavy metals, eutrophication, damming, alteration of hydrology and introduction of exotic species. Current work was assumed to study the fish catch from the Ganga river at Allahabad during the period July 2015 to June 2016. The 89 fish species were recorded from the Ganga river at Allahabad. The examination of annual data on fish landing showed that the estimated annual catch was dominated by miscellaneous group followed by Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus. They accounted for 19.09%, 15.50% and 14.56%, respectively. In case of Indian major carps, Cirrhinus mrigala shared maximum contribution. In the summer and monsoon seasons miscellaneous groups were dominating while in winter season, O. niloticus in the Ganga river. The fish O. niloticus is an exotic species which is known to invade the river. The catch data indicated towards a significant decline in Indigenous species and immediate need to address the restoration and conservation for stock of Indian major carps.