Advancements in evidence-based anesthesia of exotic animals.
Anesthesia and sedation of pet nondomestic species are often necessary for both invasive and noninvasive procedures. Even minimally invasive procedures can be stressful for small prey species that are not domesticated or acclimated to human contact and restraint. Recent advancements in evidence-based practice will continue to improve the field based on scientifically sound best practices and rely less on anecdotal recommendations. This article focuses on new scientific literature that has been published in the past 5 years. For ease of reading, the authors divide the article to highlight advances in anesthetic pharmacology and discoveries in anesthetic physiology and monitoring.