A brief overview of known introductions of non-native marine and coastal species into China.
Non-native marine species have attracted a great deal of attention due to wide distribution and potential harmful impacts on ecosystems and economies. However, relatively little information exists about non-native marine species in China. This study provides an inventory of non-native marine and coastal species (213 species) reported to date in China (including the Bohai Sea, the Yellow Sea, the East China Sea, and the South China Sea). The main source regions were the Atlantic, Pacific, Indo-Pacific, and Indian Oceans (196 species in total, or 92.0% of species). Over one-third of non-native marine species (74 species) have established self-sustaining populations, and nearly half of the non-native species (93 species) caused negative ecological and economic impacts. The main introduction pathways of the known non-native species are ornamental trade (74 species, 34.7%), followed by aquaculture (69 species, 32.4%), shipping (65 species, 30.5%), and ecological restoration (5 species, 2.3%). The number of non-native marine species is higher in the northern sea than that in the southern sea of China. Non-native marine species have caused significant positive and negative impacts on China's environment and economy. Clearly, future studies need to focus on detecting and managing non-native marine species in China.