First record of okra leafhopper, Amrasca biguttula biguttula Ishida on okra in Iraq.
Okra, Ablemoschus esculents is one of the popular vegetable crops in Iraq, Many insects pests infest this crop from germination up to harvesting. Recently, okra leafhopper have become as serious pest of okra, There were no any detailed studies about it in Iraq. Identification, biology and seasonal incidence of okra leafhopper were conducted at the College of Agriculture, Baghdad. Okra leafhopper were identified as, Amrasca biguttala biguttala Ishida (Cicadellidae: Homoptera) which considered to be a new record on okra crop and some others secondary host plants including, eggplant Solanum melongena, pepper, Capsicum annum, Cow pea, and Mallow, Malva parviflora L. In Iraq. Leafhopper had 5 nymphal instars, Total nymphal period ranged between 6.66-9.33 days with an average of 8.0 days. Adult longevity ranged from 15-19 days with an average of 17 days, Sex ratio were(1.2 M:1.0 F) in favor of males. Okra leaf hopper population varies in different dates through tout the season, Population remained below 2 leafhopper/leaf for about 50 days after emergence, Then numbers started to increase gradually during June reaching maximum two peaks of 16 and 14 leafhopper/leaf during the end of June and through tout the month of October respectively. Then population decreased gradually to less than 2 leafhopper/leaf during December. Incidence of leafhopper increased with age of the crop, generally in vegetative crop population less than in flowering and maturity. Totals numbers of leafhopper/plant were 30, 85, and 155 for 7, 11 and 22 weeks old okra plants. The highest numbers of leafhopper were recorded in middle leaves numbers 5 to 9 which ranged between 6-19 leafhopper/leaf while less numbers recorded on lower and upper leaves.