Natural and artificial polyploids in aquaculture.
Genome polyploidy has been revealed to result in evolutionary advantages and novelties, and therefore, polyploid aquatic animals may possess excellent traits of economic interest including rapid growth, extensive adaptability and disease resistance. For this reason, numerous species of natural polyploid fishes, such as common carp, gibel carp, crucian carp, salmon, and sturgeon, were chosen as important target species for aquaculture. Many artificial polyploids have been commercially utilized for aquaculture and most of them were created from natural polyploid fishes of the Cyprinidae and Salmonidae. Thanks to the easy mass production and better economic traits in growth and flesh quality, the synthetized autopolyploids or allopolyploids from natural polyploid species in cyprinid fishes have been extensively applied to aquaculture throughout China. This review outlines polyploidy advantages and innovative opportunities, lists natural polyploid species used in aquaculture, and summarizes artificial polyploids that have been induced or synthetized, and used in aquaculture. Moreover, some main research trends on polyploid utilization and ploidy manipulation of aquaculture animals are also introduced and discussed in the review.