Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana in China (1984-2016).
Salmonella enterica serovar Indiana, first described in 1955, is generally regarded as having a low frequency worldwide with outbreaks of gastroenteritis and abortions described in North America and Europe. In China, S. Indiana was first reported in 1984 and in the subsequent 71 surveys in 35 cities/municipalities from 18 provinces, 70% of which were after 2012, S. Indiana has been shown to have become widely prevalent in people, animals, food and the environment around abattoirs and meat processing facilities. The organism is now one of the most common serovars found in livestock and raw meat in China with S. Indiana isolates having high levels of drug resistance, especially against tetracyclines, quinolones, folate pathway inhibitors, phenicols, penicillins, monobactams and nitrofurans. Further, S. Indiana isolates that are concurrently resistant to ciprofloxacin and ceftriaxone/cefotaxime have emerged. Studies have suggested the high levels of multidrug resistance of S. Indiana might be associated with the presence of class 1 integrons and plasmids. Unfortunately, information on the high prevalence of S. Indiana and its extensive drug resistance in China has largely escaped international recognition as it largely appears in local reports written in Chinese. To address this situation, we reviewed all the available local Chinese and international publications on the organism in China and report our findings in this review.