Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Anti-plasmodial activity of Parthenium hysterophorus L. lactones and Argemone mexicana L. alkaloids in Cuba.

Abstract

Introduction: Argemone mexicana L. and Parthenium hysterophorus L. are plants with history of antimalarial use in Cuba. Several studies have validated the antiplasmodial activity of these species in other countries. Alkaloids and lactones are the active principles of these plants. Objective: to evaluate antiplasmodial activity of alkaloid-rich and lactone-rich extracts from A. mexicana and P. hysterophorus harvested in Cuba. Methods: Crude extracts from the aerial parts of A. mexicana and from the root of P. Hysterophorus; alkaloid- rich extract from A. mexicana and two lactone-rich extracts from root and aerial part of P. Hysterophorus were prepared. The activity of these extracts was evaluated in vitro against P. berghei and citotoxicity against human fibroblast MRC-5 was determined. The most selective extract was evaluated in vivo in a rodent model. Results: Only those fractions without alkaloids and without lactones exhibited non inhibitory action on P. berghei squizogony development at 100 g/mL. The lactone-rich extract of P. hysterophorus aerial part was the most cytotoxic but the least selective (IS<1). The rest of active extracts exhibited similar selectivity indexes (3.0; 3.7 y 3.1). Intraperitoneal administration of A. mexicana crude extract caused significant reduction of parasitemia in the mice treated with 500 mg/kg, whereas, alkaloid- rich extract caused toxicity at 200 mg/kg and caused a non-significant reduction of parasitemia at 100 mg/kg and 150 mg/kg. The treatment with crude extract of P. hysterophorus root was very toxic at a dose of 500 mg/kg, whereas the lactone-rich extract was no toxic and brought a significant reduction of parasitemia in mice treated with 1 000 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results show the potential of lactone-rich extract from P. hysterophorus root as a basis for a future anti-malarial phytomedicine.