Recent advances in the study of mycorrhizal fungi and stress resistance of plants.
The study on interactions between mycorrhizal fungi and stress environments, and their impacts on the stress resistance of plants is one of the key research topics in mycorrhizology and has been paid more attention. Many research reports and reviews addressed stress alleviation effects induced by various types of mycorrhizal fungi (MF). However, one comprehensive, integrated and systematic review related to this aspect remains unavailable. This review summarizes the main advances in the study of mycorrhizal fungi and stress resistance of plants in recent 7 years: including influences of MF on plant resistance and tolerance to abiotic stresses (such as drought, water logging, high temperature, low temperature, salt damage, heavy metal and metalloid poison, toxic organic compounds poison, fog damage, strong radiation damage, and mechanical damage, etc.) and biological stresses (continuous cropping obstacles caused by soil microbial community structure and function disorders, diseases, pests, weeds, and exotic plant invasion). The review summarized the synergic effects of MF interacting with other rhizospere living organisms, and associated abiotic factors on improving plant resistance, decomposition of toxic substances and soil fertility, and remediating polluted and degraded habitat. The review discussed the molecular mechanism of MF in improving plant resistance and rehabilitating polluted and degraded soils, and the possible ways to increase MF's physiological and ecological effects. The shortcomings of current research and proposed future research are discussed to promote research in this field, and to provide guidance for developing green remediation technology.