First report of Meloidogyne enterolobii infecting the weed Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum) in Brazil.
During the summer of 2015, Jerusalem cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum) exhibiting multiple galls in the roots but no above-ground symptoms were detected in Cachoieira do Sul County, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Individual females (n=30) were extracted from root samples and submitted to Meloidogyne species identification. Based on the results of electrophoresis using an esterase isoenzyme, morphometric measurement of second-stage juveniles (J2) (n=20), and amplification of the mitochondrial DNA region between COII and 16S and the D2-D3 fragment of the 28S ribosomal RNA gene, the nematode was identified as Meloidogyne enterolobii. In addition, two root and soil samples were processed to determine the number of eggs and J2s of M. enterolobii. The mean nematode population density was 435 eggs and J2s per gram of fresh root and 320 J2s per 100 cm3 of soil. Greenhouse tests were also conducted to confirm pathogenicity of M. enterolobii on S. pseudocapsicum plants. This nematode is considered an economically important agricultural nematode globally as it causes severe yield losses for many crops such as tomato, pepper, and guava. Thus, the weed S. pseudocapsicum can act as a potential reservoir for M. enterolobii in Brazil and elsewhere when crops are absent. This is thought to be the first report of M. enterolobii parasitizing S. pseudocapsicum.