Efficacy of semiochemical-baited traps for detection of Scolytinae species (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in the Russian Far East.
Traps baited with plant volatiles and/or bark beetle pheromones have been used to survey for exotic and potentially invasive bark and wood-boring beetles in North America since the mid-1990s. Recent discoveries of sex and aggregation pheromones in the Cerambycidae offer means of improving detection rates of longhorn beetles, but little is known of their effects on detection of bark and ambrosia beetles in the subfamily Scolytinae. Our objectives were to determine the efficacy of host volatile trap lures for survey and detection of Scolytinae species and whether that efficacy was affected by the addition of longhorn beetle pheromones. More than 12,000 specimens and 36 species of Scolytinae were collected in two field trapping bioassays conducted in the Russian Far East in 2009 and 2010. The lure combination of spruce blend (a blend of racemic α-pinene, (-) β-pinene, (+)-3-carene, (+)-limonene, and α-terpinolene) and ethanol significantly increased detection rates and mean catches of Hylastes brunneus Erichson, Hylastes obscurus Chapuis, Ips typographus (L.), and Dryocoetes striatus Eggers compared with unbaited traps. The addition of the longhorn beetle pheromones, E-fuscumol, or E-fuscumol acetate, to traps baited with spruce blend and ethanol, slightly reduced mean catches of D. striatus but otherwise did not affect catch of any Scolytine species. Baiting traps with ethanol significantly increased mean catches of Anisandrus apicalis (Blandford), Anisandrus dispar (Fabr.), Anisandrus maiche (Kurenzov), Xyleborinus attenuatus (Blandford), Xyleborinus saxesenii (Ratzeburg), Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), Scolytoplatypus tycon Blandford, and Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier). By themselves, the longhorn beetle pheromones, racemic hydroxyhexan-2-one and racemic hydroxyoctan-2-one, were not attractive to any Scolytine species. However, when added to ethanol-baited traps, hydroxyhexan-2-one lures significantly increased mean catch of S. tycon, hydroxyoctan-2-one lures significantly reduced mean catches of A. maiche and X. attenuatus, and lures of either hydroxyketone significantly reduced mean catch of T. lineatum. The lure treatments that detected the greatest number of species per sampling effort were spruce blend plus ethanol in 2009 (16 Scolytinae species and 13 species of Cerambycidae combined in an eight-trap sample) and hydroxyhexan-2-one plus ethanol in 2010 (20 Scolytinae species and 7 species of Cerambycidae combined in an eight-trap sample). Species accumulation curves did not reach an asymptote for any lure treatment, indicating that many species would go undetected in samples of 8-9 traps per site.