Invasive Species Compendium

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Abstract

Hydroenvironmental characterization of springs.

Abstract

Springs consist of an upwelling of groundwater from which water flows. This water then forms the drainage network. The negative environmental impacts caused in any portion of the basin may affect the quantity and quality of water. This study characterized the springs of Itanguá watershed, Capão Bonito, SP, considering their types, their conservation status, and the presence of negative environmental impacts. As for the type, springs were classified as "point" or "diffuse" and, regarding conservation status, they were ranked as "excellent", "good", "fair", "bad" and "very bad" based on macroscopic evaluation. Nineteen springs were identified and 15 visited; of these, nine were classified as "point", and six as "diffuse." With respect to conservation status, two springs were classified as "excellent", 12 as "good", and one as "fair". The presence of exotic species was observed by macroscopic evaluation, such as animal (boar) and vegetation (Pinus spp.). The lack of vegetation in "permanent preservation areas" was the most frequently observed environmental impact found. The methods used were efficient as a first analysis of the situation of the springs and to provide information to support programs to improve water conservation in the Floresta Nacional de Capão Bonito, SP.