Genotoxic effects of Heracleum sosnowskyi in the Allium cepa test.
Heracleum sosnowskyi is one of the most aggressive alien species in Europe. However, no information is available on its genotoxic effects. The goal of this study was to investigate cytological aberrations and genotoxic effects of H. sosnowskyi juice using the well-established Allium test. Root tip cells were treated with varying concentrations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 300 ml l-1) of solution in water of H. sosnowskyi juice. The same slides with root tips were used for mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations and micronuclei scoring. Mitotic and phase indexes were also analyzed. No genotoxic effects were found at a concentration of 1 ml l-1. Mitotic abnormalities were detected at concentrations of 10, 50, 100, and 300 ml l-1. Chromosomal abnormalities and micronuclei were detected at concentrations of 50, 100, and 300 ml l-1. Significant decrease in mitotic index was found at 5, 10, 50, 100, and 300 ml l-1 concentrations of H. sosnowskyi juice. Lagging chromosomes were the most common abnormalities. The data demonstrated that H. sosnowskyi juice exhibits both clastogenic and aneugenic activity. However, aneugenic activity is more pronounced.