Wing shape changes: a morphological view of the Diabrotica virgifera virgifera European invasion.
An analysis of the hind wing morphology (size and shape) within and among western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, populations over a large geographic scale in Europe was conducted. The changes in hind wing shape and size detected were related to identifiable invasion processes (i.e. multiple introduction events into Europe), first characterised using genetic markers. Overall implications from this work suggest that geometric morphometric techniques can be used to detect population changes related to invasions and could therefore serve as a cheaper and more accessible alternative 'biomarker' to more expensive and specialised-use genetic markers, such as microsatellites or SNPs, when investigating biological invasions.