An ecological study on a noxious weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L and its management in Malaysia in 2015.
Parthenium hysterophorus L., commonly known as Parthenium weed is an invasive weed and was first reported in Malaysia in 2013. This alien weed is now found in many parts of the country but it has not been recorded in Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang in Peninsular Malaysia and Sarawak in East Malaysia. The plant also produces chemical compounds of Parthenin and other phenolic acids in all parts of the plant, including hair-like structure (trichomes) on the stems and leaves and pollens, that are highly toxic to human and animals. In tropical Malaysia, the natural vegetation grows well and has been observed to suppress and contained the spread of Parthenium weed. Several species of grasses, broadleaved plants and sedges are able to co-exist with Parthenium weed. Human activities viz. urban development, agriculture, over-grazing, etc., create a conducive environment for Parthenium to establish. Weed management involves the following measures: (i) import regulation, (ii) legislation, (iii) early detection and eradication, (iv) manual weeding, and (v) chemical control. Common salt and several herbicides have been found to give effective control. The overall status of Parthenium weed is discussed and recommendations are given to deal with its infestation and eradication.