Detection and evaluation the tetraploid plants of Celosia argentea induced by colchicines.
Background: Chromosome doubling using colchicine has been used in plant breeding programs to produce the polyploidy plants that have superior agronomic traits over their diploid counter part. They have an increase in cell size, leading to larger reproductive and vegetative organs, increasing the production of important medicinal compounds and a higher tolerance to environmental stress. Methodology: Seeds of Celosia argentea were treated by 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2% colchicine for 48 h to produce polyploidy plants. Stomata size and density, pollen grain size, number of chloroplast per guard cell and DNA content as well as morphological traits were used to detect the polyploidy plants. Results: Putative tetraploid plants were increased significantly in all studied traits either vegetative, flowering growth or phytochemical compound compared to diploid ones. Pollen viability and seed germination percentage were decreased in the tetraploid plants compared to the diploid ones. The DNA content in the tetraploid plant was two times more than the diploids. Other traits used to screen the tetraploid plants were found to be effective. Conclusion: Finally, colchicine is an effective method in the breeding programe of Celosia argentea.