A review of the introduced forest pests in Brazil.
Special attention should be given to forest plantings in order to minimize the probability of exotic pest introduction and, consequently, of production losses. The objective of this review was to present, under a historic perspective, the main exotic insects that harm the Brazilian forest sector. Therefore, to better describe the phytosanitary context of introduced forest pests in Brazil, the main information regarding these insects was gathered here. Introduced species and species with a risk of introduction were listed. The following species were registered: 12 exotic introduced species related to eucalyptus, non-quarantine; 9 species related to pine, one quarantine; and 1 species related to teak, quarantine. Overall, the core problems for 57 pest species were addressed, followed by projections on current risks and priorities. Biological control programs and their respective agents were also mentioned. For eucalyptus plantations, the species belonging to the genera Ophelimus and Leptocybe are priorities and should be emphasized. Regarding pine species, the main current concerns are Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (transmitted by species of Monochamus), Rhyacionia frustrana, and Dendroctonus frontalis. Better risk management requires reinforcement of phytosanitary inspections and constant refinement of contingency plans, whose actions include monitoring by visual sampling, employment of sentinel plants, and preventive breeding programs aiming at pest resistance.