Distribution of important plant parasitic nematodes associated with wheat in Punjab.
Soil and root samples were collected from thirteen districts (186 samples) during 2012-13 and from seven districts (88 samples) during 2013-14 in the month of February-March for the estimation of plant parasitic nematode infestation on wheat crop in the Punjab state. Heterodera avenae, species of Meloidogyne (M. graminicola and M. incognita), Tylenchorhynchus vulgaris and T. mashoodi, Hirschmanniella oryzae, Helicotylenchus dihystera and Hoplolaimus indicus were the important nematode species associated with wheat crop in the state. H. avenae cysts were recorded from Moga, Faridkot, Mukatsar, Fazilka, Ludhiana and Jalandhar districts. The number of cysts per 250cc soil recorded were highest from Tutkalan (District Jalandhar) in 2013-14 and from Chibranwali (District Muktsar) and Fazilka (District Fazilka) in 2012-13 with number being 8 cysts and 10 cysts per 250 cc soil, respectively in successive years. The highest numbers of Meloidogyne spp. i.e. 150 larvae/250cc soil was recorded from villages Sukhni and Bhoondri (District Ludhiana). Tylenchorhynchus sp. was recorded from all the samples collected during both the years with population ranging from 40-520 individuals per 250cc soil with 100% frequency of occurrence. Hirschmanniella sp. was also recorded from rice-wheat rotation fields. No incidence of Anguina tritici was recorded from 3800 grain samples analysed from 195 grain markets of the state during two years.