Pomegranate arthropod pests and their management in the Mediterranean area.
Here we review the arthropod pests most damaging to pomegranate cultivation in the main production regions of the Circum-Mediterranean area, and discuss the eventual phytosanitary risks linked to some newly introduced species in this geographical area. The arthropod species mentioned here are based on their occurrence and economic importance. These are either mites (Tenuipalpidae) or insects belonging to Hemiptera (Flatidae, Aphididae, Aleyrodidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, and Pseudococcidae), Lepidoptera (Cossidae, Lycaenidae, Erebidae, and Pyralidae), Diptera (Tephritidae), and Coleoptera (Bostrichidae and Nitidulidae). In the Circum-Mediterranean area, the major pests are Aphis punicae, A. gossypii, Planococcus spp., Zeuzera pyrina, Apomyelois ceratoniae, Deudorix livia and Cryptoblades gnidiella. A nod is also given to those species normally considered as minor pests that, in some environment and under specific conditions, can be of major concern. Particular attention should be paid toward avoiding the introduction of two species that could become a serious problem for pomegranate that are Thaumatotibia leucotreta and Deudorix isocrates. The main morphological and biological characteristics of each pomegranate pest species and the tools available in their integrated and organic control are briefly presented.