Drosophila suzukii population response to environment and management strategies.
Drosophila suzukii causes economic damage to berry and stone fruit worldwide. Laboratory-generated datasets were standardized and combined on the basis of degree days (DD), using Gompertz and Cauchy curves for survival and reproduction. Eggs transitioned to larvae at 20.3 DD; larvae to pupae at 118.1 DD; and pupae to adults at 200 DD. All adults are expected to have died at 610 DD. Oviposition initiates at 210 DD and gradually increases to a maximum of 15 eggs per DD at 410 DD and subsequently decreases to zero at 610 DD. These data were used as the basis for a DD cohort-level population model. Laboratory survival under extreme temperatures when DD did not accumulate was described by a Gompertz curve based on calendar days. We determined that the initiation of the reproductive period of late dormant field-collected female D. suzukii ranged from 50 to 800 DD from January 1. This suggests that D. suzukii females can reproduce early in the season and are probably limited by availability of early host plants. Finally, we used the DD population model to examine hypothetical stage-specific mortality effects of IPM practices from insecticides and parasitoids at the field level. We found that adulticides applied during the early season will result in the largest comparative population decrease. It is clear from model outputs that parasitism levels comparable to those found in field studies may have a limited effect on population growth. Novel parasitoid guilds could therefore be improved and would be valuable for IPM of D. suzukii.