Taxonomic revision of the genus Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae) in Italy.
A taxonomic revision of the genus Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae) in Italy is here presented. Field surveys were carried out during the period 2007-2013. Thirty-six herbaria (both European and American) were consulted as well as extensive literature was analyzed. Four taxa are recognized, all of them to be considered aliens native to South America. Information about nomenclature (accepted names, main synonyms, and types), morphology, chromosome number, alien status (at national and regional levels), occurrence in Italy (at regional and provincial scale), ecology (preferential habitat, phenology, and elevation), taxonomical notes, and Italian vernacular names were provided for each taxon. A diagnostic key was given. For the nomenclatural purposes the generic name Alternanthera and its type was discussed, and the names A. paronychioides and A. pungens were studied and typified (lecto- and neotype, respectively) on specimens preserved at PH and P.