The non-indigenous bryozoan Triphyllozoon (Cheilostomata: Phidoloporidae) in the Atlantic: morphology and dispersion on the Brazilian coast.
Bryozoans constitute an important component of marine-fouling communities of anthropogenic substrata. Many species have been reported as exotic or widespread around the world, typically in ports and harbors of non-polar regions. Here we present the first record of a species of the bryozoan Triphyllozoon in the Atlantic Ocean. Triphyllozoon arcuatum (MacGillivray, 1889), described originally from Australia, is reported herein from natural substrata in Singapore and natural and artificial substrata in Brazil. Although easily recognizable, the species has not been previously reported from anywhere else in the Atlantic. In the latter instance, the species was collected during monitoring of the invasive scleractinian corals Tubastraea spp. on an oil platform originally from Singapore and now located at Todos os Santos Bay, northeastern Brazil. Colonies of T. arcuatum were also found associated with three species of sponges, giving evidence that it is also growing in the natural environment. Todos os Santos Bay is characterized by intense commercial shipping traffic and oil exploration and the finding of T. arcuatum on an oil platform provides strong evidence that it represents a non-indigenous species in the Atlantic. Owing to the possible impact of T. arcuatum in Brazil, further studies and monitoring of its bioinvasion are recommended.