Freshwater fishes of Iran; an updated checklist.
The present study provides a new and updated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Iran. The confirmed freshwater fishes of Iran comprise 257 species in 106 genera, 29 families, 18 orders and 3 classes. The most diverse order is the Cypriniformes with 162 species or 63.04% of the fauna, followed by Perciformes (32 species, 12.45%), Cyprinodontiformes (17 species, 6.61%) and Clupeiformes (11 species, 4.28%). The most diverse family is the Cyprinidae with 111 confirmed species (43.19%) followed by Nemacheilidae (44 species, 17.12%), Gobiidae (24 species, 9.34%), Cyprinodontidae (14 species, 5.45%), Clupeidae (10 species, 3.89%), Cobitidae (7 species, 2.72%) and Salmonidae (7 species, 2.72%). Twenty-two families have 6 or fewer species. Fourteen families have only one species. Endemics comprise 73 species (28.40% of total fauna) in seven families although this is expected to increase, as new species are describing. Cyprinidae with 30 endemics (41.10% of endemic species) is ranked first followed by Nemacheilidae with 25 (34.25%), Cyprinodontidae with 11 (15.07%), Cobitidae with 4 (5.48%), and Cichlidae, Gobiidae and Sisoridae, each with one species (1.37% each). An additional 23 species require confirmation of their presence in Iran. Twenty-seven exotic species in nine families are listed here. Cyprinidae with 11 species (40.74% of exotic species) is ranked first followed by Salmonidae (5 species, 18.52%), Poeciliidae with 3 species (11.11%), Mugilidae and Cichlidae both with 2 species (7.41% each) and 4 families each with only one species (3.70% each). Exotic species containing, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Ctenopharyngodon idella, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Hypophthalmichthys nobilis and Cyprinus carpio transplanted by Iranian Fisheries Organization (Shilat) for aquaculture developments throughout Iran, but Alburnus hohenackeri, Carassius auratus, Carassius gibelio, Hemiculter leucisculus, Pseudorasbora parva, and Gambusia holbrooki, transferred with them inadvertently to Iranian water resources. Certain nominal species can be regarded as species complexes, probably containing several undescribed species. The genera Capoeta, Squalius, Alburnus and Barbus are wide-ranging and complexes genus in Iran, that systematics of them need careful reassessment.