Gene flow and genetic structure of Bactrocera carambolae (Diptera, Tephritidae) among geographical differences and sister species, B. dorsalis, inferred from microsatellite DNA data.
The Carambola fruit fly, Bactrocera carambolae, is an invasive pest in Southeast Asia. It has been introduced into areas in South America such as Suriname and Brazil. Bactrocera carambolae belongs to the B. dorsalis species complex, and seems to be separated from B. dorsalis based on morphological and multilocus phylogenetic studies. Even though the Carambola fruit fly is an important quarantine species and has an impact on international trade, knowledge of the molecular ecology of B. carambolae, concerning species status and pest management aspects, is lacking. Seven populations sampled from the known geographical areas of B. carambolae including Southeast Asia (i.e., Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand) and South America (i.e., Suriname), were genotyped using eight microsatellite DNA markers. Genetic variation, genetic structure, and genetic network among populations illustrated that the Suriname samples were genetically differentiated from Southeast Asian populations. The genetic network revealed that samples from West Sumatra (Pekanbaru, PK) and Java (Jakarta, JK) were presumably the source populations of B. carambolae in Suriname, which was congruent with human migration records between the two continents. Additionally, three populations of B. dorsalis were included to better understand the species boundary. The genetic structure between the two species was significantly separated and approximately 11% of total individuals were detected as admixed (0.100 ≤ Q ≤ 0.900). The genetic network showed connections between B. carambolae and B. dorsalis groups throughout Depok (DP), JK, and Nakhon Sri Thammarat (NT) populations. These data supported the hypothesis that the reproductive isolation between the two species may be leaky. Although the morphology and monophyly of nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequences in previous studies showed discrete entities, the hypothesis of semipermeable boundaries may not be rejected. Alleles at microsatellite loci could be introgressed rather than other nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. Bactrocera carambolae may be an incipient rather than a distinct species of B. dorsalis. Regarding the pest management aspect, the genetic sexing Salaya5 strain (SY5) was included for comparison with wild populations. The SY5 strain was genetically assigned to the B. carambolae cluster. Likewise, the genetic network showed that the strain shared greatest genetic similarity to JK, suggesting that SY5 did not divert away from its original genetic makeup. Under laboratory conditions, at least 12 generations apart, selection did not strongly affect genetic compatibility between the strain and wild populations. This knowledge further confirms the potential utilization of the Salaya5 strain in regional programs of area-wide integrated pest management using SIT.