Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Review: genetic diversity of local and exotic cattle and their crossbreeding impact on the quality of Indonesian cattle.

Abstract

Several species of cattle had been domesticated around the world, but only two species were farmed extensively, zebu cattle (Bos indicus) of the tropics and taurine cattle (Bos taurus) of the subtropical areas. Both of them had hundreds variety of offspring in the worlds. The third species of cattle that most widely farmed was Bali cattle (Bos javanicus), an indigenous cattle from Indonesia that was domesticated from wild banteng (Bos javanicus javanicus). Besides Bali cattle, Indonesia had also some local cattle as direct descendants of or as Crossbreeds of those three cattle. These cattle had been adapted to climatic conditions, feeds and diseases in Indonesia. Local zebu cattle that relatively pure were Peranakan Ongole (PO) or Ongole breeds and Sumba Ongole (SO). The main Crossbreed between zebu and Bali cattle was Madura cattle. The other well-known cattle of this were Aceh cattle, Pesisir cattle, Rancah cattle, Jabres cattle, Galekan cattle and Rambon cattle. Crossbreeds of taurine and zebu cattle generally produced calf that declining reproductive ability in generations. One fairly successful was Grati cattle or Holstein Freisian Indonesia (FHI) which was a crossbreed of Holstein Friesian and PO cattle. In recent decades, there were many crossbreed activities through artificial insemination between local cattle and taurine cattle to produce excellent beef cattle, mainly Simmental and Limousin. This activity was carried out widely and evenly distributed throughout Indonesia. It was conducted on all local cattle breeds and was strongly supported by local farmers. This crossbreeding activity was feared to change the genetic diversity of local Indonesia cattle, where the descendants could not adapt to the climatic conditions, feeds and localized diseases; and the ability of reproduction continues to decline in generations, therefore the availability of parental cattle should be maintained continuously. This crossbreed had produced some new breeds, among others Simpo (Simmental × PO), Limpo (Limousin × PO), Simbal (Simmental × Bali cattle), Limbal (Limousin × Bali cattle), and Madrasin or Limad (Limousin × Madura cattle). Male offsprings were sterile, while female offsprings had lower reproductive capacity than of the parent's. This lead to uncertainty over the guarantee of meeting the needs of protein (meat and milk) of Indonesian in the future, thus there was a need of regulation. On the other hand, in the grasslands of North Australia, the breeder had produced an eminent cattle breeds, namely Australian Commercial Cattle (ACC), from uncontrolled crossbreeds between different breeds of taurine and zebu cattle in the pasture, therefore this concerns ignored.