Update on surgical principles and equipment.
The diversity implicit in exotic animal surgery requires a tailored approach to optimize successful outcomes. Outlined is information on patient preparation, instrumentation, hemostatic techniques, and magnification as it pertains to the exotic animal. Application of topical antiseptic solutions and judicious removal of pelage and feathers will decrease bacterial load during patient preparation. The use of specific barrier protection ensures proper aseptic technique and enables optimal patient monitoring. Magnification combined with a focal light source enhances visual acuity, allowing for better use of delicate instrumentation and identification of anatomic structures.