Incidences of leaf spots, blights and fruit rots of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) in Guilan province, Iran.
Kiwifruit is an economically important fruit crop in the northern part of Iran. Identify the Kiwifruit fungal pathogens in Guilan province, 65 kiwifruit orchards were visited in 2008-2010. Leaves and fruits with disease symptoms were sampled and their fungal pathogens were isolated and purified on PDA and WA. Fungal species were determined morphologically according to the relevant literature. Fungi associated with leaf spots, blights and fruit rot symptoms with their prevalence rate were identified and determined in this study as follows: Alternaria alternata (45%), Diaporthe cf. actinidiae (25%), Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (12%), Botrytis cinerea (11%) and Pestalotiopsis longiseta (7%). The pathogenicity of all isolated fungi was proved on kiwifruit leaves (in vivo) and fruits (in vitro). The leaf spots caused by P. longiseta and D. cf. actinidiae were more severe followed by blight and curling of leaf margins. In all of the species, the disease was more severe in wounded than in unwounded leaves. Effect of leaf age was different. D. cf. actinidiae at stem end and B. cinerea at both stem and distal ends showed the highest level of fruit rot developments at 25±1°C and 0-1°C, respectively. Based on the results of this study, kiwifruit is reported as new host of C. gloeosporioides and D. cf. actinidiae in Iran and infections caused by all the species can be important on injured host tissues.