Insect Growth Regulator (IGR) effects of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook (Myrtaceae).
In addition to eucalyptin the methanol extract from leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora (Myrtaceae) afforded the known compounds apigenin, chrysin, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin; together with betulinic acid, oleanolic, ursolic acid, and two remaining complex mixtures of unidentified flavonoids and triterpenes. These compounds together with triterpenes mixtures, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed antifeedant, insecticidal and insect growth regulatory activities against fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda JE Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)] an important pest of corn, and yellow mealworm [Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera:Tenebrionidae)] a pest of stored grains. The most active compounds were chrysin, eucalyptin, quercetin, luteolin, and betulinic and oleanolic acids and the mixtures of flavonoids and triterpenes (M1 and M2). These compounds and mixtures had IGR activity between 0.2 to 5.0 µg/mL and insecticidal effects between 5.0 and 10.0 µg/mL. The extracts were insecticidal to larvae, with lethal doses between 20-100 µg/mL. These compounds appear to have selective effects on the pre-emergence metabolism of the Lepidoptera, since in all treatments of the larvae of S. frugiperda the pupation was shortened and this process showed precociousness in relation to control. Thus, these substances may be useful as potential natural insecticidal agents.