The risk analysis of the imported bumblebees.
Objectives: This paper attempts to assess the risk, including that of introducing parasites, epidemic diseases and biological invasion, associated with the importation of bumblebees, and to provide a scientific basis for formulating quarantine measures. Methods: Taking into account the probability of invasion, colonization and the dissemination of parasites and epidemic diseases in China, and the potential harmfulness of these for the economy and ecology, a risk analysis of imported bumblebees was conducted based on the risk analysis model used in New Zealand. Results: The importation of Apicystis bombi, Crithidia bombi, Nosema bombi, Locustacurus buchneri, Melittobia acasta and Aethina tumida poses significant risks of introducing new pests and diseases to Chinese bumblebees and introduced exotic bumblebees could establish feral colonies in China. Conclusion: The importation of bumblebees carries a series of risks requiring the development and implementation of relevant risk management measures.