Introduced tree species in Saxony? - a review and perspective.
Forestry introduced tree species in Saxony have a share of 5.8%, including European larch from the Sudety Mountains and red oak from north America as the area most important species. The predominant base of their enhanced cultivation is the loss of forest functions through damaged spruce forests by immissions, so happened at the early 20th century in the field of the industrial centers Chemnitz and Freiberg and towards the end of the century on the ridges of the Saxon mountain ranges. A long-term improvement of forest condition as a requirement of durable forest functions and operational successes not often resulted. Visible positive experiences are limited to stocks of red oak, larch, Balkan pine and a number of small-scale occurrence of spruce and fir trees. The reasons of failures are varied and complex. They begin with the unfavorable locational initial conditions and include lack of site suitability as well as false origin choice. Added to this are the interactions with the native biological communities and evolutionary processes, especially with phytophagous insects and pathogens. In the forest management plan of the country forest only the black cherry noticeable signs of spontaneous spreading, mostly in pine, oak and birch stands. From the point of changing environmental conditions the assessment of introduced tree species is to be understood as a dynamic process - more so than with the native tree species. Apart from enrichment plans or control programs, past experiences leads us to a largely inclusive silvicultural handling, which is differentiated by tree species and sites.