Studies on insect fauna, their natural enemies and pollinators in fenugreek.
This paper presents the results of field studies conducted in Karnataka, India, in 2013-14, to determine the occurrence of insect pests, natural enemies and pollinators of fenugreek. During the study, fenugreek was prone to the attack of 37 insect species belonging to the orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Orthoptera and Hemiptera, of which 35 were new records on fenugreek. The lepidopterous defoliators Spoladea recurvalis, Spodoptera litura, Agrotis segetum, Agrotis sp., Psara basalis, Maruca vitrata, Catopsilia pyranthe, Erectomocera impactella, Helicoverpa armigera, Spilarctia obliqua, Amata passalis, Utetheisa pulchelloides and Euproctis sp. were noticed throughout the period of investigation. The insects Agrotis segetum, Utetheisa pulchelloides, Amata passalis, Acanthodelta janata and Euproctis sp. were recorded for the first time on fenugreek. Four bug species, i.e. Chrysocoris stollii, Dysdercus similis, Eusarcoris ventralis and Bagrada hilaris were noticed for the first time on fenugreek. Four lady bird beetle species, i.e. Brumoides suturalis, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, Illeis cincta and Coccinella transversalis, species of preying mantids, i.e. Mantis religiosa and Hierodula tenuidentata, a paper wasp, a dragonfly and a tettigonid insect were also noticed in the fenugreek ecosystem.