Aeroallergens investigation with special reference to identification of diversity of allergenic plant species dispersing pollen grains.
Rapid industrialization and urbanization have significantly increased the risk of allergenic disorders because environment plays an important role in the precipitation of allergic symptoms. The major environmental allergens of biological origin are pollen grains, fungal spores, mycelium and insects. The hazards due to bio-pollutants are very high among the inhabitants involving in industrial development. In the present study an attempt has been taken for investigation of aeroallergens with special reference to diversity of allergenic plant species at CFRI campus, Digwadih, Dhanbad, Jharkhand. During the study, total 135 plant species have been identified in the CFRI campus, which comes under 52 different families in which the family of Euphorbiaceae, Apocynaceae, Compositae, Mimoseace, Fabaceae are dominant while families like Annonaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asterculiaceae, Bombacaceae, Cannaceae, Labiate, Onaraceae and Viliaceae etc. were found with least number. The highest number of plant species identified during the investigation belongs to family Euphorbiaceae (09 species) followed by Apocynaceae (08 species) and Compositae, Mimoseace and Fabaceae (07 species), while families like Annonaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Asterculiaceae, Bombacaceae, Cannaceae, Labiate, Onaraceae and Viliaceae etc. were found with least number (only one species). Plant species identified during the investigation were further divided according to their habitat i.e., 65 plants were herbs, 40 were shrubs and 30 were trees in which some are allergenic and highly allergenic. Out of 135 identified plant species, 38 (28.14%) species were found to be allergic which were further divided into allergic and highly allergic. Out of 38 (28.14%) allergic plant species, 29 (21.48%) plants species belongs to allergic category and remaining 9 (6.66%) plant species were highly allergic. Plant species such as Brassica campestris, Lantana camara, Hibiscus rosa sinensis, Amaranthus viridis, Parthenium hysterophorous, Bougainvillea spectabilis, Amaranthus spinosus, Helianthus annuus and Chenopodium album were identified as highly allergic plant species.