Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Abstract

Influence of long-term exposure to background pollution on the response and recovery of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea to ammonia sub-lethal stress: a multi-marker approach with field estuarine populations.

Abstract

The influence of long-term exposure to background pollution on the response and recovery of the invasive species Corbicula fluminea to ammonia stress was investigated using a multi-marker approach. Wild clams of the tidal freshwater areas of two estuaries of the NW Iberian coast with different levels of pollution, the estuaries of Minho river (reference) and of Lima river (contaminated), were collected and exposed individually to different treatments: 8 and 14 days in dechlorinated tap water (DTW), 8 and 14 days in 1 mg L-1 of ammonia (AM), and 8 days in AM followed by 6 days in DTW. After each defined time (0, 8, and 14 days), the clams were sacrificed and the activity of the enzymes glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), cholinesterase (ChE), octopine dehydrogenase (ODH), and the lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were used as effect criteria. At the beginning of the bioassay, the clams from the polluted estuary presented significantly higher background levels of GST, CAT, GR, GPx, and LPO than those from the reference one indicating long-term exposure to oxidative stressors. In general, C. fluminea from both estuaries presented little sensibility to ammonia with no significant differences found between exposed and control clams for most of the biomarkers. That low sensibility of C. fluminea could be seen as advantageous for its invasion ability.