Infestation of wild and ornamental noncrop fruits by Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is a pest of small fruits and cherries, and has also been noted to infest a variety of wild, ornamental, and uncultivated hosts. Identifying alternative hosts is critical for pest management. Research objectives were to: (1) survey fruits in the field for natural infestation of D. suzukii, (2) determine the susceptibility of fruits in laboratory no-choice studies, and (3) evaluate short-range preference between simultaneously ripe alternative hosts and cultivated fruits in laboratory choice studies. Field surveys identified new hosts or confirmed previously reported hosts including: Berberis aquifolium Pursh, Oregon grape; Cornus spp., dogwood; Cotoneaster lacteus W.W. Smith, milkflower cotoneaster; Elaeagnus umbellata Thunberg, Autumn olive; Frangula purshiana (de Candolle) A. Gray, cascara buckthorn; Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume, spicebush; Lonicera caerulea L., blue honeysuckle; Morus sp., mulberry; Phytolacca americana L., pokeweed; Prunus avium (L.) L., wild cherry; Prunus laurocerasus L., cherry laurel; Prunus lusitanica L., Portuguese laurel; Rubus armeniacus Focke, Himalaya blackberry; Rubus spectabilis Pursh, salmonberry; Sambucus nigra L., black elderberry; Sarcococca confusa Sealy, sweet box; Solanum dulcamara L., bittersweet nightshade; and Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S.F. Blake, snowberry. High fruit infestations were observed in S. confusa during April-May and Lonicera spp. in June before most commercial fruits ripen. From both field and laboratory studies, there was no evidence of susceptibility during the estimated ripe period Crataegus L. 'Autumn Glory,' hawthorn; Ilex crenata Thunberg, Japanese holly; Nandina domestica Thunberg, sacred bamboo; Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Thunberg) Makino, yeddo hawthorne; Rosa acicularis Lindley, prickly rose; Skimmia japonica Thunberg, Japanese skimmia; and Viburnum davidii Franchet, David's viburnum. Lastly, laboratory choice tests identified that several fall-ripening alternative hosts were more susceptible than 'Pinot noir' or 'Pinot gris' wine grapes. By understanding host use, growers can identify high-risk areas where coordinated action may reduce infestation of D. suzukii in crops.